Monumenter i købstaden 1864 - 1920

Søg efter monumenter:

Monuments in other countries

Below we show short introduction to the monuments of a number of countries. The information about them mainly comes from the diplomatic representations in Denmark of the countries in question. In some cases, however, it comes from cultural history institutions within the countries in question whom we have been asked to contact by the before mentioned diplomatic representations.

Which information the various informants have chosen varies and for this reason it also varies from country to country which information we can show about the monuments of the various countries.

We aim to explain briefly which historical events led to the building of monuments in each country and to mention a few characteristics of the monuments of the countries. Further more we mention the national days of remembrance at which ceremonies of commemoration take place at monuments.

The intension of this part of our monuments project is to produce a useful starting point for anybody who want to study the monuments of a specific country or who are going to a specific country to experience commemorative events there.

Literature and useful links are mentioned under the entry of each country. In a number of cases the books mentioned are written in languages we are unable to read and all we can do in such cases are, of course, to mention them – we cannot evaluate their quality.

Putting the Danish monument information into perspective

The Danish Centre for Urban History chose, by the beginning of this monuments project, to to examine the danish monument building of danish market towns from the Danish-Prussian-Austrian War of 1864, the First World War 1914 – 1918 and the re-unification of Southern Jutland/Northern Slesvig with Denmark in 1920. The other main intention with the information about monuments in other countries for this reason is to put the Danish developments within monument building into perspective.

Many of the countries asked by us about their monument building were active participants in the First World War 1914 – 1918. This has very clearly influenced the monument building of those countries not only as compared to Denmark but also compared to other neutral countries such as Switzerland. That particular country has a very unusual monument `landscape´ as the country has a very long history of neutrality. Danish neutrality during the war of 1914 – 1918 meant that outside Southern Jutland/Northern Schleswig that was under german rule and for this reason also had to supply conscripts for the german army Danish monuments from the First World War are rare. Apart from the national monument in Århus to all the approx. 4,100 Danes killed during the war there are almost only monuments to that war in two types of locations. One is in seaports such as Marstal and Esbjerg that traditionally supplied manpower for the Danish merchant navy or such ports with a lot of fishermen. The other is at cemeteries in which prisoners of war on their way back to their native countries are buried. A number of these died in Denmark during internment just after the war often due to the Influenza pandemic of 1918 – 1919.

In a number of countries that fought in the First World War there are almost the same number of monuments from the two world wars and in some cases more from the First World War than from the Second One.

The monument building of Southern Jutland/Northern Slesvig look much like the monument building of these countries. This was due to the high number of war dead which was the result of the area being under german rule as that meant that the young men of the area would go to the front and fight like other young men in Germany. This meant a high number of war dead like in other parts of Germany and in other belligerent countries which also meant a great need to remember the war dead on monuments.

The war of 1864 between Denmark and Prussia-Austria and the re-unification in 1920 of Southern Jutland/Northern Slesvig with Denmark were important historical events in Denmark and that shows in the monument building of the events in this country. The losses of over 3000 war dead in the war of 1864 in a small population of around 2 million and the re-unification in 1920 following the painful defeat and subsequent loss of Northern Slesvig of 1864 made monument building the natural response. This took place all over the country especially from the re-unification with around 580 monuments nation wide.

But even in Germany and Austria they were of limited importance. The war of 1864 produced a relatively low number of war dead in a large population – a few thousands at most - and the re-unification meant the loss of a fairly small piece of land compared to the size of Germany. The events porduced fairly few monuments for the reasons mentioned. In countries that were not touched by these events, of course, they caused no monument building.

The Second World War 1939 – 1945 on the other hand was important when it comes to monument building in a number of countries including Denmark that was under a very mild kind of german occupation from 1940 – 1945 compared to other countries under german occupation. Still, in Denmark, the german occupation was and still is seen as a very important event in Danish History and it has caused a very high number of monuments, around 1245 in total. No other single event has caused as many monuments in danish history although the number of war dead was not all that big – only a couple of thousands at most - even if you also count those who fought for the germans as volunteers. In this case the level of monument building reflects the perceived importance of the event by contemporaries and by people later in history more than the number of war dead.

Monuments and days of remembrance in a number of countries


During the First World War the country was a British dominion and took part in the war. Australian soldiers became particularly known for fighting at Gallipoli facing Turkish troops. During the Second World War Sustralian forces became known for fighting the Japanese in the Far East. After 1945 they were involved in the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Gulf Wars.

Most Australian monuments were unveiled after the First World War and presumably the names of the war dead of subsequent wars are inscribed on those monuments. The Australian day of remembrance is 25th April and is called Anzac Day. It is not know if there is a nation wide database of Australian war memorials. Ken Inglis has made a smaller survey of them.


Inglis, Ken and Jock Phillips: ”War memorials in Australia and New Zealand”, in Rickard, John and Peter Spearitt: Packaging the Past? Public Histories, pp. 179-192.

Other sources:

Embassy of Australia, Copenhagen, Denmark

Links: - Australian War Memorial – The Commonwealth War Graves Commission


Austria was part of Austria-Hungary until the end of the First World War 1914 – 1918 when the country was fighting on the same side as Germany. Austrian forces fought against the Italians on the front line in the mountains between the two countries. Austria-Hungary and Germany lost the war. Following the German invasion of Austria in 1938 the country followed Germany into the Second World War 1939 – 1945.

After 1945 Austria has remained neutral up until recently.

The two World Wars have produced the most war memorials in Austria. There is one if not more in almost any town and city. In total there are some 5,000 of them.

It is not known if a record or database is kept of Austria’s war memorials. Heeresgeschichtliches Museum in Vienna is an authority on the subject of war memorials.


Giller, Joachim, Hubert Mader und Christina Seidl: Wo sind sie geblieben …? Kriegerdenkmäler und Gefallenenehrung in Österreich (Wien 1992).

Wo sind sie geblieben ...? Zeichen der Erinnerung. Sonderausstellung im Heeresgeschichtlichen Museum 22. Oktober 1997 bis 22. Februar 1998.


Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Vienna

Links: – Heeresgeschichtliches Museum, Vienna - Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Vienna


Belgium was attacked by Germany at the beginning of the First World War. It became the host of part of the Western Front where some of the worst fighting took place during the war. The country was again attacked by Germany at the start of World War 2 when it was occupied. After 1945 Belgium has mainly been involved in conflicts in its former empire.

Most of Belgiums war memorialsdates from the First World War but the names from the 2nd World War are often inscribed on them so that they commemorate both wars. There is no nationwide database of Belgian war memorials but in the province of West Flanders all war monuments are recorded. The 11th November is the day of remembrance for the war dead of both world wars.

Local authorities do maintainance on the local monuments.


The embassy of Belgium, Copenhagen, Denmark


Canada was a dominion within the British Empire during the First World War and as such it took part in the fighting. Canadian forces fought on the Western Front amongst other places at Vimy Ridge. The Dane, Thomas Dinesen, brother of the world famous Danish writer Karen Blixen/Isaac Dinesen, fought with the Canadian forces and won the Victorian Cross in combat at the Western Front.

During the Second World War Canada was also a belligerent country and Canadian forces fought amongst many other places at Dieppe, France. After 1945 Canadian forces has fought in the Korean War etc.

Most Canadian war memorials commemorate the First or the Second World Wars and on a number of monuments from World War One the war dead of World War Two are also inscribed.

Canadas day of remembrance is 11th November and possibly also on Dominion Day, 1st July.


Wood, Herbert Fairlie and John Swettenham: Silent Witnesses (Toronto, 1974).

Links: - Royal Canadian Legion – Canadian organisation of ex-servicemen. - Veterans Affairs Canada


Croatia was part of Austria-Hungary before the First World War and became involved in the war in this way. After World War One it became part of Jugoslavia.

During the Second World War German forces occupied the country.

After 1945 Croatia continued to be part of Jugoslavia until 1991-1995 when it became independent during the collapse of Jugoslavia. This included heavy fighting.

The greatest number of war memorials in Croatia is from the Second World War and from the Homeland War 1991-1995. The Institute for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage keeps a record of the war memorials of the country.

The days of remembrance in Croatia are 22nd June (Anti-Faschist Day), 25th June (Day of the formation of the State) and 5th August (Victory- and Day of National Thanksgiving). The local authorities do the maintenance of local war memorials.


Embassy of Croatia, Copenhagen


Czech Republic

Until 1918 the Czech Republic was partof Austria-Hungary but, together with the Slovak Republic, by the end of the First World War it became an independent state under the name of Czechoslovakia. During the Second World War the Czech Republic was occupied by German troops.

After 1945 the country was part of Soviet dominated Eastern Europe until 1989. Later it became an independent country.

Most Czech monuments commemorate the First World War but almost as many commemorate the Second World War. However, often the war dead of both wars are commemorated on the same monument. All war memorials of the Czech Republic are recorded in a database kept by the Czech Ministry of Defence.

In the Czech Republic days of remembrance are 5th May, the day of the Czech uprising against German occupation during the Second World War, and 8th May, the day of the allied victory over Germany during the same world war. There are also remembrance ceremonies taking place on Independence Day, 28th October. The day marks the independence of Austria-Hungary after the First World War. The 11th November is also a day of remembrance and it is called Veteran’s Day in the Czech Republic. It is the day of the armistice that ended the First World War.


Bocur, Maria & Nancy M. Wingfield (eds.): Staging the past. The politics of Commemoration in Habsburg Central Europe 1848 to the Present (West Lafayette, Indiana, 2001).

Hojda, Zdenek & Jiri Pokorny: Pomniky a zapomniky (Praha – Litomysl: Paseka 1996).

Komitet 1866 – Pece o valecne pamatky v prubehu staleti (Hradec Kralove 2003).

Sayer, Derek: Coasts of Bohemia. A Czech History (Princeton 1998).


Lt. Col. Mgr. Ales Knizek, Director of the Institute for Military History, Prague, Czech Republic.

Link: – Institute for Military History, Prague


The country was under Russian rule during the beginning of World War One 1914 – 1918 but without taking part in the war. It became independent after the Russian Revolution in 1917 and since republic in 1919 after a civil war in 1918.

During the Second World War 1939 – 1945 Finland was invaded by Soviet forces and later it took part in the german attack on the Soviet Union. It had to give up some territories after the 2nd World War.

Finland has stayed neutral since 1945.

Most war memorials in Finland are from the 2nd World War and there is one on almost every cemetery by the graves of the war dead. Also the Finnish civil war of 1918 has resulted in some monuments.

It is not known if there is a national database of Finlands war memorials. The part of Finnish authorities responsible for monuments is Museiverket in Helsinki.

Days of remembrance are 27th June (Veteran’s Day), 4th of June (Day of the Finnish Defence Forces) and 6th December (National Day).


Johansson, Rolf: ”Finske Frivillige i krigen i 1864” (=Finnish Volunteers in the War of 1864), in Sønderjyske Årbøger (1999), pp. 7 – 36 (Sønderjyske Årbøger is a Danish journal).

Other sources:

Marja Vasala-Fleischer, Embassy of Finland, Copenhagen

Rolf Johansson, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Finland


France was one of the most important belligerent countries in the First World War 1914 – 1918 and part of the Western Front was located in the country. France experienced a high number of casualties.

During the Second World War France was occupied by the germans until the allied invasion of 1944. During the german occupation there was intens resistance going on in the country. After 1945 France has been involved in fighting in its former empire including French Indochina and Algeria.

Most french war memorials were erected after the First World War. There is one in almost every village and town. In total there are some 38,000 monuments in France commemorating the First World War but also some from the French-German War of 1871. Often the far fewer war dead from the Second World War and later wars and conflicts are inscribed on the monuments from the First World War. It is not known if there is a central database of French war memorials.

The day of remembrance is 11th November.


Becker, A.: “From Death to Memory; the National Ossuaries in France after the Great War”, in History and Memory, vol. 5, 2 (1993), s. 32-49.

Becker, Annette: Les Monuments Aux Morts: Patrimoine et mémoire de la grande guerre (Paris 1988 or 1989). Editions Errance.

Becker, Annette: “War Memorials: A Legacy of Total War?”, in: Stig Förster and Jörg Nagler (eds.): On the Road to Total War. The American Civil War and the German Wars of Unification 1861-1871, s. 657-683.

Kidd, W.: “Identity and Iconography: French War Memorials 1914-1918 and 1939-1945”, in: R. Chapman and N. Hewitt (eds.): Popular Culture and Mass Communication in Twentieth-Century France (Lampeter 1992), s. 220-241.

Prost, Antoine: In the Wake of War. ‘Les Anciens Combattants’ and French Society 1914-1939 (English edit., Oxford 1992).

Prost, Antoine: Republican Identities in War and Peace. Representations of France in the 19th and 20th Centuries (English edit., Oxford, 2002).

Ukendt: Inauguration du monument de noisseville élevé aux soldats francais tombés en 1870 sur les champs de bataille a l’est de Metz (Metz, Imprimerie Lorraine 1908).


Germany was a belligerent country during the First World War 1914 – 1918 on the same side as Austria-Hungary but they lost the war. Germany lost 2 million people in the First World War. The country was also a belligerent country during the Second World War 1939 – 1945 but it also lost that war. The number of war dead is uncertain but it is likely to be close to 10 million.

After 1945 Germany was divided into two independent countries; East Germany under Soviet control and West Germany under Western Influence. Germany was re-unified after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.

It is uncertain which war has resulted in the most war memorials in Germany but most likely it is the Second World War.

There is no central database of all German war memorials.

Days of remembrance are often 2nd Sunday in November, Volkstrauertag, commemorating victims of war and of Nazism.

It is the Länder (states – regional authorities), local authorities or cemeteries who are also responsible for looking after and maintaining Germany’s war memorials.

The organisation Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge mainly looks after the graves of soldiers.


Armanski, G.: ”und wenn wir sterben müssen”: Die Politische Ästhetik von Kriegerdenkmälern (Hamburg 1989).

Jefferies, Matthew: Imperial Culture in Germany 1871-1918 (Basingstoke 2003).

Koselleck, Reinhart: Der politische Totenkult (1994).

Koselleck, Reinhart: ”…Kriegerdenkmale als identitätsstiftungen der Überlebenden”, in: Odo Marquard & Karlheinz Stierle (Herausg.): Identität (München 1979), s. 255-276.

Lurz, Meinhold: Kriegerdenkmäler in Deutschland, 6. Bd. (Heidelberg 1985).

Stolz, Gerd & Heyo Wulf: Dänische, Deutsche und Österreichische Kriegsgräber von 1848/51 und 1864 in Schleswig-Holstein (Husum 2004).

Wolff, Klaus: Das Bismarck Denkmal (München 1964).


Volksbund Deutscher Kriegsgräberfürsorge

Embassy of Germany, Copenhagen.

Links: - German War Graves Commision

Great Britain

Great Britain fought along side with France in the First World War 1914 – 1918. British soldiers fought not only at the Western Front in France and Belgium but also in the British Empire and the country experienced heavy casualties – much heavier than during the Second World War 1939 – 1945. During that war Great Britain was again a belligerent country and its soldiers, sailers and airmen fought not only in Europe but also around the world. Casualties, however, were considerably fewer than during the First World War.

After 1945 British forces took part in the Korean War and were involved in fighting in Kenya and Northern Ireland, the Gulf Wars of 1991 and 2003 etc.

By far the most British war memorials originally commemorated the war dead of the First World War but the names of those who died in the Second World War, and in later wars and conflicts are also recorded on them. There are such monuments in almost every town and village.

The British day of remembrance is the Sunday closest to the 11th November – the date on which the armistice ended the First World War in 1918. Lately there has also been a silence at 11.00 am at the 11th November.

At the Imperial War Museum in London the National Inventory of War Memorials are about to create a database of all Britain’s war memorials. There is believed to be some 54,000. The work is in progress and has been going on since 1989.

Looking after and maintaining war memorials in Great Britain is the responsibility of the owners of the monuments, often local authorities like Town Councils.


Baltzersen, Jan: Den britiske mindekultur belyst generelt og for en enkelt bys vedkommende. (= The British Commemorative Movement at the National Level and with a Case Study of a Specific Town), MA Dissertation, Department of History, University of Aarhus (2000).

Boorman, D.: At the Going Down of the Sun. British First World War Memorials (York 1988).

Boorman, D.: For Your Tomorrow. British Second World War Memorials (York 1995).

Borg, A.: War Memorials from Antiquity to the Present (London 1991).

Bushaway, B.: ”Name upon Name: The Great War and Remembrance”, in: R. Porter (ed.): Myths of the English (Cambridge 1992), s. 136-168.

Gavaghan, M.: The Story of the Unknown Warrior. 11th November 1920 (Preston, 2nd edit. 1997).

Greenberg, A.: ”Lutyen’s Cenotaph”, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. XLVIII, No. 1, (March 1989), s. 5-24.

Gregory, A.: The Silence of Memory. Armistice Day 1919-1946 (Oxford 1994).

Imperial War Museum/ National Inventory of War memorials: The War Memorials Handbook, 2nd edit. (2001).

King, A.: Memorials of the Great War in Britain. The Symbolism and Politics of Remembrance (Oxford 1998).

Longworth, P.: The Unending Vigil (London, 2nd edit. 1985)

McIntyre, C.: Monuments of War. How to Read a War memorial (London 1990).

Moriarty, C.: ”Private Grief and Public Remembrance: First World War Memorials”, i M. Evans & K. Lunn: War and Memory in the Twentieth Century (Oxford 1984), s. 125-143.

Moriarty, C.: ”The Absent Dead and Figurative First World War Memorials”, Transactions of the Ancient Monuments Society, vol. 39 (1995), s. 7-40.

Purkis, Sallie: A Teacher’s guide to Using memorials (English Heritage, London 1995).

Sørensen, N. A.: Storbritanniens lange efterkrigstid 1918-1945: kultur- og politikhistoriske nedsslag. Arbejdspapir nr. 25 – 95, Center for Kulturforskning (Århus, maj 1995).

Ward, G. K. & E. Gibson: Courage Remembered. The Story Behind the Construction and Maintenance of the Commonwealth’s Military Cemeteries and Memorials of the Wars of 1914-1918 and 1939- 1945 (London 1988).

Winter, J. M.: The Great War and the British People (Basingstoke 1985).


National Inventory of War Memorials, Imperial War Museum, London.

Links: - National Inventory of War Memorials, Imperial War Museum, London. – Imperial War Museum, London. – Commonwealth War Graves Commission - Royal British Legion – British organisation of ex-servicemen


Greece took part in the First World War 1914 – 1918 on the side of the allies, the Entente. During the Second World War 1939 – 1945 the country was occupied by Italian and german troops and there was fighting on greek soil.

After 1945 Greece has been involved in the conflict regarding Cyprus in which Turkey was the other party.

The most greek war memorials commemorates the Second World War but often the war dead of both world wars and of the Balkan Wars are inscribed on the same monuments.

Local authorities are in charge of the maintenance of war memorials but the government and the military are doing the maintenance on the monuments located on former battlefields. There is no national database of Greek war memorials.

Days of remembrance are 25th March (National Day of Greece) and 28th October (Day of the italian attack on Greece in 1940).


Press Office, Embassy of Greece, Copenhagen.


Until the end of the First World War 1914 – 1918 Hungary was part of Austria-Hungary. After the war the country became independent.

Hungary took part in the Second World War 1939 – 1945. After 1945 it came under Soviet control until after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.

There are more than 1,000 war memorials in Hungary from the 1st and the 2nd World Wars but more from the latter than from the former.

A central database or record of the war memorials of Hungary is in the process of being made by the Bureau for the Maintenance of War Graves.

Days of remembrance are the last Sunday in May, the Day of the War Heroes. In 2001 a law was made saying that that day was the national day of remembrance.

The Institute and Museum for Military History in Budapest takes care of the graves of foreign soldiers buried in Hungary and it also takes care of Hungary’s war memorials.


I. N.: “War Memorials”, in: New Hungarian Quarterly 101, (1986), s. 121-122.

Szabó, Miklós: “A magyar történeti mitológia az elso világháborús emlékmuveken” (Hungarian myth as expressed in the Great War memorials), in: Monumentumok az elso bábirúból, Budapest (Adolf Fényes Hall 1985), s. 65-73.

(Ukendt): Monumentumok az elso háborubol (Budapest 1991) .


Embassy of Hungary, Copenhagen.

Director Dr. Jolán Szijj, Institute and Museum for Military History, Budapest, Hungary.

Bureau for the Maintenance of War Graves



Italy took part in the First World War 1914 – 1918 with the Entente against Germany and Austria. There was a front line in the border regions of Austria and Italy.

During the Second World War 1939 – 1945 Italy fought on the side of Germany and amongst other military actions it attempted an invasion of Greece.

Since 1945 Italy has been involved in no war until the 2nd Gulf War i 2003.

Most Italian war memorials commemorate the First or Second World Wars. It is not known if there is a centyral database of Italian war memorials.


Cimitero di guerra internazionale e riquadri italiani/Internationaler Soldatenfriedhof italienischer Teil: Mauthausen. Udg. Ministerio della defisa: Commissariato generale per le onoranze ai Caduti in guerra/Italianisches Verteidigungsministerium: Kommissariat für Kriegsgräberfürsorge (år ukendt). Pjece.

Italian military shrines abroad (2. W. W.): El Alamein, Egypt. Udg. Ministerio della defisa (år ukendt). Pjece.

Italian Memorials of the 2. World War: The ”Fosse Ardeatine” Memorial. Udg. Ministerio della defisa: Commissariato generale per le onoranze ai Caduti in guerra (English edition 1992/2001). Pjece.

Sacrari militari della guerra mondiale: Redipuglia oslavia. Ed altri sacrari del friuli Venezia giulia e d’oltre confine (Rom 1999).

Sacrari militari della 2a guerra mondiale: Bari. Monte lungo. Ed altri in Italia (Rom 1989).

Sacrari e cimiteri militari italiani all’estero. Caduti di tutte le guerre Europa, Africa, Asia, America, Australia (Rom 1999).

Sørensen, Nils Arne: ”Krig i et grænseland. Mindekulturen om første verdenskrig i Trentino” (= War in a Border Region. The Culture of Commemoration in Trentino), in; Johnny Laursen et al.: I tradition og kaos. Festskrift til Henning Poulsen (Århus 2000), s. 33-68.

New Zealand

The country was a dominion in the British Empire during the First World War and as such the mcountry took part in the war.

During the Second World War New Zealand was also a belligerent country.

After 1945 it was involved in the Korean War.

Most New Zealand war memorials were erected after the First World War and the names of the war dead of later conflicts are inscribed on these monuments.

There is no central database of the country’s war memorials as far as we know but Jock Phillips and others carried out a smaller survey around 1990. He and Chris Maclean have also written a book about them.

Presumably the day of remembrance is 25th April but this is uncertain.


Maclean, Chris and Jock Phillips: The Sorrow and the Pride. New Zealand War Memorials (Wellington, 1990)

Links: – Commonwealth War Graves Commission


Norway was neutral during the First World War but a number of Norwegians died at sea.

During the Second World War Norway was occupied by german forces in 1940 after heavy fighting which at some point included British troops on the side of the Norwegians. The occupation of the country was rough and there were often fighting between Norwegian resistance fighters and the germans.

Most Norwegian war memorials were erected after the Second World War but a few after the First World War and often these commemorate people who died at sea. Norway has no database of its war memorials.


Christiansen, Haakon Odd: Monumenter i Trondheim by ((Trondheim 1976).

Harper, Inge og Gunnar Myhre: Krigsminnesmerker i Fosen (by og år ukendt).

Korsbrekke, Berit og Arne Strømme: Tause minner. En historisk vandring blant skulpturer og bautasteiner i Molde Kommune (by og år ukendt).

Kverndokk, Kyrre: ”De kjempet, de falt, de gav oss alt”. Om den rituelle bruken av norske krigsminnesmerker (Oslo, 2000).

Lundh, Gro Laheld: Verd å se: Skulpturer, monumenter og større dekorative arbeider i Sandefjord (Sandefjord Kommune 2003).

Marthinsen, Thor-Olaf (forf./red.): For offervilje og sjømannsdåd: Sjømennenes minnehall gjennom 70 år (Stavern 1996).

Monumenter og parkskulptur i Oslo by (Oslo Kommunes kunstsamlinger, Oslo 1953).

Monumenter og prydskulptur i Oslo. (Katalog/Oslo Kommunes kunstsamlinger, nr. 12, Oslo 1956).

Ritland, Kåre N.: Merket skal standa om mannen han stupa: Krigsminnesmerker i Hordaland (by og år ukendt).

Wiik, Øistein: Minner og minnesmerker fra 1940-1945 (evt. privattryk 2000).

Wikborg, Tone og Nina Felling Andersen: Skulpturer og minnesmerker i Oslo (Oslo, evt. 1986).

Tvedt, Knut Arne (red.): Oslo Byleksikon (Oslo, 2000).

Artikel in PRO PATRIA – tidskrift for Vernepligtige Officeres Forening nr. 8, (1964), s. 6-9.


Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, University Library, Oslo.

Nasjonalbiblioteket avd. Oslo.

Links: – Norges Nationalbibliotek – Norges Rigsantikvar – Norges Forsvarsministerium – Universitetsbiblioteket i Oslo


Romania took part in the First World War on the side of the entente but was occupied by german troops. The country experienced many casualties but at the same time it got more territory as a result of the war.

During the Second World War Romaniawas on the side of Germany until it was invaded by Soviet troops in 1944.

After 1945 the country came under communist rule and remained son until around 1990.

The First World War resulted in by far the largest number of war memorials in Romania. They are recorded in a database called the List of Historic Monuments in which monuments are recorded on the initiative of local authorities. The law of protection of historic monuments protects Romania’s war memorials. Looking after and maintaining war memorials belongs to the National Office of the Heroes’ Cult that is part of the government administration. Local monuments, however, are the responsibility of of local authorities.

The Romanian day of remembrance is 40 days after Easter and it has its origin in religious traditions and practises.


Vlad-Andrei Moga, Ambassador, Embassy of Romania, Copenhagen

Links: – List of Historic Monuments - National Office for the Heroes’ Cult


Up until the communist revolution of 1917 Russia had a Zar so he was in power during the first part of the First World War 1914 – 1918. After the revolution the country called itself the Soviet Union and decided to discontinue the war.

During the Second World War 1939 – 1945 the Soviet Union did not become a belligerent country until 1941 but then some of the most violent fighting took place on the Eastern Front between primarily Soviet and German forces for the rest of the war causing heavy losses on both sides. The Soviet Union also experienced heavy civilian losses during the Second World War.

The Soviet regime was in power until the early 1990s and Soviet forces fought in Afghanistan etc. After the fall of the communist regime several parts of the Soviet Union became independent and what remains is Russia.

By far the greatest number of war memorials in Russia is from the Second World War that in Russia is called the ”Great Patriotic War”. One of Russia’s most important war memorials is the Eternal Flame on the Red Square in Moscow. All monuments are recorded but it is uncertain if there is a central database. Recordings of monuments are most likely to be found in the Russian Federal Archives or in specialised archives with the responsibility of recording war memorials.

Days of remembrance are held on 9th May, the day when Germany was defeated in the Second World War, but also on 23rd February that is the day when all defenders of the fatherland throughout the centuries are remembered.

Local authorities together with relevant organisations are responsible for looking after and maintaining Russia’s war memorials.


I. Azizyan & I. Ivanova: Honour Eternal. Second World War Memorials (Moscow, 1982).


Cultural Attache, Embassy of Russia, Copenhagen.


Slovenia became a part of the now former Jugoslavia by the end of the First World War 1914 – 1918. The country remained a part of Jugoslavia between 1918 – 1941 and again after 1945 up until the collapse of Jugoslavia in 1991. Slovenia became an independent country after heavy fighting in June 1991.

The Second World War caused the highest number of war memorials in Slovenia as the country experianced heavy casualties during the war.

All monuments of historic interest are in the process of being recorded in a central register of the Slovenian cultural heritage. This is part of the activities of the Slovenian Ministry of Culture. The Ministry of Work, Family and Welfare is in charge of all war graves and war cemeteries in Slovenia and keeps records in a database.

Days of remembrance varies but often 27th April, Day of the Struggle against Nazism, 25th June, Day of the Nation, 1st November, Day of the Dead Ancesters or 26th December, Independence Day, are days of remembrance.

It is the owners of the monuments who look after and maintain them with help from local authorities. Monuments, which are part of the war graves of foreign soldiers are looked after and maintained by the Ministry of Work, Family and Welfare.


The Department of Information and Documentation, Ministry of Culture, Slovenia


Sweden remained neutral during both World Wars and after 1945 and that is reflected in the monument building of the country.

There is no database of Swedish war memorials or other monuments but they might be recorded by the regional authoirities, the Lens, as being protected as part of the cultural heritage.

At Armémuseum (Army Museum) in Stockholm there are some lists of war memorials but they do not record such monuments as those commemorating sailors etc. Svensk Flyghistorisk Förening (Swedish Society for the History of Flying) by agreement with the Swedish Flyvertaktiske Kommando (Flying Command) keeps a record of monuments in Sweden related to flying.


Aronsson, Peter: ”Monumentens mening”, in: Res Publica 60, 2003, s. 15-29.

Aronsson, Peter och Lennart Johansson (red.): Ett landskap minns sitt förflutna. Monument och minnesmärken i Värend och Sunnerbo (Växjö 2003).

Rodell, Magnus: Att gjuta en nation. Statyinvigningar och nationsformering i Sverige vid 1800-talets mitt (Stockholm 2002).

Odén, Birgitta: ”Äresstoder och minnesfester i Skåne”, in: Ale 1976, s. 25-43.

Zander, Ulf: Fornstora dagar, moderna tider: Bruk av och debatter om svensk historia från sekelskifte till sekelskifte (Lund, 2001).

Zander, Ulf: ”Historia i brons och granit: Nationella monument och regionala identiteter i Öresundsområdet”, in: Sven Tägil, Frederik Lindström og Solveig Stål: Öresundsregionen – visioner och verklighet: från ett symposium på Lillö (Lund 1997).


Thomas Roth, Head of the Research Department, Armémuseum, Stockholm.

Links: -Svensk Flyghistorisk Förening - Swedish Society for the History of Flying


The long lasting neutrality of Switzerlandwhich has kept the country out of international conflicts and wars are reflected in the building of war memorials of the country. Switzerland has stayed neutral during both the First and the Second World Wars.

For this reason there are very few war memorials in Switzerland from these conflicts, and monuments from the World Wars in Switzerland are usually erected by other countries due to some of their nationals having received political aylum or humanitarian assistance by Switzerland during the World Wars.

The main part of the war memorials of Switzerland are from earlier wars than those of the Twentieth Century, for example, commemorating wars against foreign kings and princes. Also, from the 1600s to the 1900s a number of war memorials were erected commemorating swiss nationals fighting in the armies of foreign countries as mercenaries. As far as we know no central database of Switzerland’s war memorials exist.


Dr. Linus von Castelmur, Embassy of Switzerland, Copenhagen

Links: – Schweizerische Nationalmuseum – Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Kunstgeschichte

The Slovak Republic

The Slovak Republic was part of Austria-Hungary until 1918 when it together with the Chec Republic became the independent state of Checoslovakia. So during the First World War it was part of a belligerent nation.

During the Second World War 1939 – 1945 the country was under German occupation. It was liberated in 1945 by Checoslovak, Soviet, and Romanian forces.

From 1945 it was part of Soviet dominated Eastern Europe until 1989. It later became an independent state.

The greatest number of war memorials in the Slovak Republic commemorate the Secon World War and in particular an uprising against the Germans in 1944 and the liberation in 1945. Almost every town has a monument for the localk war dead and often the war dead of both World Wars are inscribed on the same monuments. It is the owners of the monuments, including local authorities and organisations that looks after and maintains the local monuments.

An office within the Ministry for Culture in the Slovak Republic records historic monuments including war memorials. The memorials recorded, however, are only those believed to be particularly interesting. In addition to this record the Ministry of the Interior keeps a register of all war graves, war cemeteries etc. including war memorials found in such places. Information about them is also kept at the Military Historical Institute.

Days of remembrance are 8th May, the Day for the Victory over Fashism and the end of the Second World War in Europe, 29th August, the day of the beginning of the national uprising in 1944, and 11th November, the day of the armistice that ended the First World War. It is also called the Day of the Veterans.


Ing. Martin Kovac, Director General, Department of the Cultural Heritage, Ministry of Culture, Slovak Republic.

Doc. PhDr. Jozef Bystrický, Csc., Director of the Institute of Military History, Bratislava, Slovak Republic



The literature mentioned comes from the two libraries listed below and the literature is grouped under the library that has provided information about it. See the enclosed pdf-file.


During the First World War Turkey was part of the Ottoman Empire and as such it took part in the First World War on the same side as Germany and Austria-Hungary. Turkish troops fought against the Australians at Gallipoli, for example.

In 1922 modern Turkey was founded. The country did not take part in the Second World War. Since 1945 Turkey has fought in Cyprus and has fought against Kurdish seperatists on the border to Irak.

It is not uncertain which war has resulted in the most war memorials. The General Directory of Culture and Protection of Nature in Ankara looks after the monuments of Turkey and maintain them. Cultural historical institutions carry out documentation of war memorials.

There are days of remembrance but we do not know the dates.


Turkish Ministry of Defence

Embassy of Turkey, Berlin.

Links: – Institute for Turkish History. – National Library of Turkey.

United States

The American Civil War 1861 – 1865 was the cause of the first major casualties in the United States as a result of war.

The country did not become a belligerent country during the First World War 1914 – 1918 until 1917 and for this reason the United States experienced far fewer casualties than the other belligerent countries.

During the Second World War 1939 – 1945 the United States did not enter the war until 1941 with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour. The war resulted in heavy casualties for the country. After 1945 the United States has been involved in several wars and conflicts such as the Korean War 1950 – 53, the Vietnam War from the 1960s to the early 1970s and lately the two Gulf Wars in 1991 and 2003.

It is uncertain which war has resulted in the most war memorials but possibly it is the American Civil War.

Who are responsible for taking care of American war memorials varies greatly. Some are the responsibility of the central government and are taken care of by the National Park Service and by the Department of the Interior. Monuments not under the care of federal authorities are looked after by states or counties or by municipal authorities.

11th November is the national day of remembrance and it is called Veteran’s Day.


Mayo, James M.: War Memorials as Political Landscape. The American Experience and Beyond (New York 1988).

Piehler, Kurt G.: Remembering War the American Way (Washington 1995).

Savage, Kirk: Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves. Race, War and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America (Princeton 1997).


Information Ressource Centre, Office of Public Affairs, Embassy of the United States, Copenhagen.

Links: -National Planning Commission - Advisory Council on Historic Preservation day